Kidney stones are caused by the buildup of dissolved minerals. This buildup is usually on the inner lining of the kidneys. They mostly are made up of calcium oxalate but may also include other compound deposits.

With the passage of time kidney stones grow in size. They usually have a crystalline sharp structure. Some stones are small in size that can pass through the urinary tract. And, they can cause extreme pain when leaving the body.

Moreover, the kidney stones that remain in the body can cause serious problems. One of the painful conditions is the blockage of the ureter. The ureter is the tube that connects the kidney to the bladder. As a result of this, passing urine becomes difficult and extremely painful. It was reported that people with kidney stones have a greater risk of developing chronic kidney disease.

Take a look at the symptoms and treatment of kidney stones.

Causes of Kidney Stones

The main cause of kidney stone is a lack of water in the body. Most kidney stones are formed in people who drink less than 8 glasses of water a day. Water is imperative for your body as it dilutes the uric acid. When there is a lack of water, the urine becomes more acidic. Thus it leads to the formation of the kidney stone.

Furthermore, some medical conditions increase the risk of kidney stones. These includes:

  • Renal tubular acidosis
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Medullary sponge kidney
  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Dent’s disease.


Kidney stone remains unnoticed until it moves into the ureter. When symptoms of the kidney stone include:

  • Blood in urine
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • White blood cells in the urine
  • Burning sensation during the urination
  • Pus in the urine
  • Fever
  • Reduce amount of urine excreted
  • Persistent urge to urinate


When the doctors treat kidney stones they focus on the symptom management. Passing of the stone can be a very painful process. If you have previously passed a kidney stone, home treatment is the best option.  In case it is your first time, you should consult a doctor.

If a hospital treatment is required you must be rehydrated through an intravenous tube. They will use administered anti-inflammatory medication as well. Narcotics are mostly used to make the passing of stone bearable. 

Moreover, the doctor might use a shock therapy, lithotripsy. It breaks down the stone into smaller pieces so it can pass through urine. In some cases, surgery is also used to remove the stone. This happens only in the case of larger stones that are located in a region where therapy is not suitable. Surgical procedures include percutaneous nephrolithotomy or ureteroscopic stone removal.

The percutaneous nephrolithotomy is the removal of a stone through an incision in the back. While in ureteroscopic stone removal a thin tube is inserted into the urethra to remove the stone.

In conclusion, to help prevent kidney stones, you must stay hydrated, drink at least 8 glasses of water. 

DISCLAIMER: The medical information on this site is provided as an information resource only, and is not to be used or relied on for any diagnostic or treatment purposes. This information is not intended to be patient education, does not create any patient-physician relationship, and should not be used as a substitute for professional diagnosis and treatment.